Malus Domestica Fruit Cell Culture Extract
The liposomial preparation used in the product is based on meristematic cells obtained from a rare apple from Switzerland (Uttwiler Spätlauber).
This fruit is particularly rich in plant nutrient and proteins and is known for its high storage capacity and, consequently, its outstanding longevity. Meristematic cells, channelled in a topical formulation, accelerate skin regeneration with an anti-wrinkle action. The structure of meristematic plant cells contains epigenetic factors that are similar to human stem cells.
Meristems are a group of undifferentiated embryonic cells that, under suitable culture conditions, can develop and grow into a full plant, which turns out to be the exact clone of the original plant. Indeed, meristems are plant tissues whose cells retain (or restore upon differentiation) the ability to divide by mitosis to originate new cells. Every meristematic cells derives from another meristematic cell. This reproduction pattern, called asexual, is a routine practice in agriculture to obtain replicas of given phenotypes. In plants, meristematic stem cells are specifically involved in repairing damage. Their mode of action is based on Phenylpropanoids, very effective defensive substances who chemical and biological action occurs in synergy with polysaccharides, phytosterols, amino acids and electrolytes, which make meristematic cells a true “laboratory of protective substances”.
Using the biotechnology processes applied to the cosmetics in the 4ever Young line, in vitro culture of meristematic cells, also known as “plant stem cells”, can be stopped in the development phase that stands out for the highest concentration of cosmetologically active substances. This allows to reach phenylpropanoid concentration up to 1,000 times higher than the level originally found in live plants, while at the same time ensuring particularly high safety, purity and standardisation of cosmetic-grade active ingredients given the lack of pesticides and other contaminants found in the extracts derived from common plants that are not farmed in laboratory conditions.
Alpha Glucosyl Hesperidin or Hesperidin
Hesperidin is a biolflavonoid that can stimulate collagen synthesis and normalise the tone and complexion of the skin in the peri-ocular area, thus relieving dark circles and bags under the eyes. For centuries in Japan citrus peel has been added to warm bath water for the relaxing, aromatic properties but also to provide a pleasant, warmth feeling on the body right after the bath is finished.
Scientific studies have proven that Hesperidin, an active ingredient in citrus peel (orange, lemon and mandarin) is accountable for the body warming effect, due to a stimulation of blood circulation reaching the skin.
The traditional use of citrus peel in baths proves the therapeutic effect to relieve problems commonly due to circulatory disorders, which often translate into cold feet and hands and certain types of muscle pain. Nevertheless this substance is not very soluble and therefore its use in cosmetics is quite complex.
The 4ever Young cosmetic line contains Alpha Glucosyl Hesperidin, which is a highly soluble form of Hesperidin obtained from combining a molecule of Hesperidin and a molecule of glucose by means of an innovative enzymatic method. This process allows to obtain a compound whose solubility is approximately ten thousand times higher than non-glycosylated hesperidin, which preserves the biological properties of the original substance.
Some studies have shown that the regular application of a cream containing 1% of Glucosyl Hesperidin has a stimulating effect on microcirculation, with beneficial consequences at skin level.
The images show how this component helps improve circulation on the skin surface: on the right hand the product containing 1% of Glucosyl Hesperidin was applied regularly, twice a day (morning and evening) for a month. The left hand was treated with a placebo, used as control.
Figure 1 (Copyright 2007 Cellbone Technology Inc. ) shows the surface temperature of the skin under normal conditions.
The second image, in turn, shows the thermographic image of the hands after being immersed for a minute in cold water (10° C). Thermograph imaging allows to measure the surface temperature of the hands: from blue (cold) to red (hot).
The following images, moving from image 1 rightwards, show skin temperature recovery 10 and 20 minutes after taking the hands off cold water, in which both hands have been immersed for a minute in order to achieve the temperature needed for the experiment. Once out of the cold water, both hands were kept at room temperature and the skin surface temperature was measures in both hands every 5 minutes using thermography.
By observing the images one can appreciate the improvement in blood micro-circulation in the right hand, due to the application of Glucosyl Hesperidin-based lotion, which led to a faster return of the limb to baseline temperature.
Figure 2 (Copyright: Toyo Sugar Refining Co., Ltd) reproduces the same experiment using a lotion containing 1% of Alpha Glucosyl Hesperidin and extending test time to 40 minutes after the thermal stress and measuring the return to baseline temperature 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after taking the hands off the cold water, according to this model the hands were kept at 15° C for one minute. The upper line of images portrays the left hand, which was not treated, while the line of pictures thereunder describes the treated limb, in which a faster recovery of baseline temperature is clearly visible.
Figure 3 below reports the colorimetry results of a clinical study performed on the eye contour of volunteers (Copyright: Hayashibara Co. Ltd): the test, performed by comparing a lotion containing 1% of Alpha Glucosyl Hesperidin and a placebo, showed a significant reduction of bags under the eyes using a Colorimeter (CR-200). The product was applied by the volunteers twice a day for one month.
The properties of α Glucosyl Hesperidin
The enzymatic technology used in the α Glucosyl Hesperidin production centre allows to extract a product that has been measured to be 1,000 times more soluble in water that normal Hesperidin.
This advanced function is particularly suited to enhancing the joint action with other natural substances contained in the 4ever Young line to improve capillary blood flow, contrast the effects of time and promote skin rejuvenation. To this end the molecule is matched in 4ever Young line products with a glycosidic group that undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis during its applications, thus producing a long lasting and targeted release.
SH-OLIGOPEPTIDE-1: growth factor expressed in human stem cells
The term growth factor (often left in this form or also generally known as growth hormone) refers to proteins that can stimulate the cell proliferation and differentiation. Growth factors are available in very small quantities and they are difficult to isolate with traditional methods used for proteins. Nevertheless new gene cloning and isolation techniques rapidly revolutionised this specific area of biology.
SH-OLIGOPEPTIDE-1, more commonly identified as “EFG – Epidermal Growth Factor”, or “skin growth factor” is a small protein naturally expressed in human stem cells; its action helps cells proliferate, differentiate and survive. It is found, among others, in platelets and plasma. It was discovered at the Washington University of Saint Louis by Stanely Cohen and Rita Levi Montalcini, who won the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology in 1986.
When applied on the skin, skin growth factor SH-OLIGOPEPTIDE-1 speeds up healing, boosts the skin renewal process in aged skin and, as described by several researchers, it can “reduce senescence” in human skin, thus accelerating skin healing after damage caused by exposure to sunlight and ageing.
A-A Staminal Effect combines the effect of meristematic cells (“plant stem cells”) with the properties of this protein that, in order to ensure guaranteed purity and stability to its customers, are not extracted directly from human tissues but rather it is biotechnologically engineered through the DNA recombination technique applied to Escherichia Coli (Gram-negative bacteria human beings need to properly digest food) and then purified using proprietary chromatography technology (purity exceeding 95%). The joint action of the human stem cell growth factor and the meristematic cells (plant stem cells), in addition with other natural substances used in the 4ever Young line, is the secret behind the aesthetic “lifting” effect, translates into firmer, smoother, revitalised and repaired skin and helps reactivate biological processes slowed down by ageing.
Once applied on the skin, the epidermal growth factor speeds up the healing process from the effects of time, oxidisation, UV light and stress, thus increasing the renewal rate in damaged cells. The higher the skin ageing status, the clearer the effect.
Indeed, the signs of time are most visible when the skin can no longer renew damaged cells as quickly to keep up with the damage rate.
As an effect, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) SH-OLIGOPEPTIDE-1 helps regulate cell growth. Thanks to its properties, this small protein (made up of only 53 amino acids) directly stimulates the proliferation of skin cells, even though it does not interfere with systemic or hormonal activities. Skin cells respond to the skin growth factor normally expressed in human stem cells because the receptors found on cellular membrane can recognise it. The bond between Epidermal Growth Factor and the receptor triggers a number of molecular events that ultimately lead to the end of the cell division process. Some data suggest the role of Epidermal Growth Factor in skin wound healing.
For years traditional A-A (anti age) products have focused mainly on peeling, which helps remove dead cells from the surface of the epidermis in order to get a smoother skin. today the studies carried out on growth factor expressed in human stem cells allowed to reverse this trend: the method; instead of focusing exclusively on mechanically removing damaged skin cells, A-A Staminal Effect from the 4ever Young line is designed to regenerate the skin and stimulate the growth of new, healthy by activating cell proliferation and differentiation.
This natural activity induced by Epidermal Growth Factor not only respects the biological rhythm of the skin, but promotes it by countering the biological slow-down of said processes induced by ageing; as a result the skin looks younger, smoother and radiant. In order to regenerate and take care of the skin, the growth factor must be the same as the one in human skin. In A-A Staminal Effect the above activity is boosted by the joint action between meristematic cells (“plant stem cells”) and other natural components that enhance the lifting effect.
The Epidermal Growth Factor used in the 4ever Young line is not extracted from human beings, animals or plants; it is particularly effective, non-toxic, non-irritating and non-mutagen. It is glycol, organic solvent and preservative-free. Its purity exceeding 95% is the result of proprietary chromatography technology that allowed to obtain a high degree of purity in comparison with standard growth factor products. The following images show the growth of fibroblast cells after a 72-hour treatment with Epidermal Growth Factor: EFG displays the ability to promote skin rejuvenation through cell proliferation and the effect on tested fibroblast morphology.
Gamma Aminobutyric Acid
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid naturally produced by the human body starting from glutamine.
It is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It causes the Chlorine channel to open, thus causing the hyperpolarisation of the membrane and a reduction in the action potential at pre-synaptic level, with a subsequent reduction of the excitation degree of post-synaptic neurons. As regards cosmetic application, the electric signal inhibition induced by GABA inhibits muscular tension in the face and therefore reduces expression wrinkles and deep lines located on the skin.
Indeed, expression wrinkles are mainly located on the forehead, around the eyes and around the lips and they usually appear when an electric signal is sent from the nerve to the muscle: in this regard the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) contained in the 4ever Young line formula allows to temporarily modulate the signal allowing the muscle to contract, therefore inhibiting muscular tension in the skin of the face and concealing the deep lines wherever the product is applied.
Sodium Hyaluronate (Sodium Hyaluronate)
Sodium Hyaluronate (HA) is the sodium salt of the better known hydrophilic molecule Hyaluronic Acid, which can retain an amount of water up to a thousand times higher than its weight. It was first identified by Karl Mayer and John Palmer in 1934 in the vitreous humour of the bovine eye and after that in human umbilical cord.
In the human body, it is found in all organs and districts: in cartilage, tendons, aortic walls, umbilical cord, synovial fluid and, of course, in the vitreous humour.
It is found in nature as one of the main components of skin cells external matrix and it is responsible for several functional activities that give it moisturising, soothing and nourishing properties. Indeed, at skin level this substance helps reduce evaporation and favours the physiologic production of collagen (which in turn favours skin elasticity), thus ensuring a sizeable supply of water.
As age progresses the presence of Hyaluronic Acid in the skin decreases drastically because of a reduced ability of the body to synthesise new substance to make up for the lost one: at approximately 50 years of age the original genetic capital has reduced by half, and with it the collagen and elastin that give the skin its youthful elasticity.
This is why the skin loses elasticity given the reduced ability to retain fluids.
Sodium Hyaluronate, as opposed to Hyaluronic Acid, is moisturising and filmogenic: it absorbs and preserves the humidity already contained in the skin and forms a very thin layer to protect it from excessive trans-dermal water dissipation. From a chemical and functional standpoint Sodium Hyaluronate and Hyaluronic acid are not the same, even though a certain confusion often goes with the two products, and play different specific roles in their application.
The second-generation Sodium Hyaluronate used in the 4ever Young formula is very fast acting on the skin with a “lifting” effect in less than 30 minutes. The skin looks healthier, hydrated and restructured. Moreover, it improves the bioavailability of the other active ingredients in the product, booting the better efficacy of every other natural component in the line.
The images show its in vivo test efficacy (Copyright: Principium SA – Beauty Systems Innovations Switzerland):
a) Efficacy of second-generation Sodium Hyaluronate in elasticity tests on 10 female volunteers of age between 30 and 50 years, following the application of the product at a concentration of 0.5% at 30, 120 and 150 minutes: after only 30 minutes it is possible to observe a peak in the elasticity increase by 12.74%, which gradually fades and remains above 5% even after the conclusion of the test.
b) Efficacy of second-generation Sodium Hyaluronate in skin hydration tests carried in the same study, upon the application of a product at 0.5% concentration; a 24.8% increase in hydration was observed already in the first 2 hours.
c) Decrease in the volume of the wrinkles as resulting from the test carried out on the same volunteers using a lotion at a 0.5% concentration at 30, 120 and 240 minutes: the study confirms a decrease in wrinkle volume already at 6.20% as early as 30 minutes from application.
d) Smooth effect as resulting from a test performed by the same professional dermatology centre in all phases on the volunteers: efficacy confirmed vs. the placebo.
Lonicera Caprifolium flower extract e Lonicera Japonica flower extract
Lonicera Caprifolium Flower è estratto dai fiori della caprofilia (caprifoglio) comune, arbusto appartenente alla famiglia delle Caprifoliaceae.
L’estratto utilizzato nella linea 4ever Young ha proprietà tonificanti, lenitive, disarrossanti nei confronti della cute grazie al contenuto di tannini, olii essenziali, glucosidi, acido salicilico ed esteri del flavonoide lonicerina.
In associazione a Lonicera Japonica Flower Extract (estratto dai fiori della caprofilia giapponese, pianta rampicante sempreverde), esercita un’ attività antiossidante e antimicrobica ad ampio spettro (gram-, gram+, funghi e muffe).
Reduced alcoholic form of pantothenic acid (Vitamin b5). It is very well known for the benefit it brings to the hair, which in lack of this vitamin lose shine and vigour.
It is used also by gynaecologists for vaginal mucosa ulcers, mammary gland fissures and mucosal lesions. It has a distinct moisturising and soothing action on the skin; its effect is particularly good for dermatitis caused by long exposure to ultraviolet light. For this reason this provitamin boosts the efficacy of the natural ingredients contained in the 4ever Young line formulation, by providing specific support to dry and red, irritated skin.